$T( is a small molecule that can be used readily as an immediate energy source. t is ideal as the bonds between the phosphate groups are weak and so have a low activation energy, when a phosphate is lost- lots of energy is released. !xamples of uses of $T( in organisms
t is used to %oin amino acids together to form proteins, which have a wide range of uses in the body such as globular proteins like en)ymes, or structural proteins like collagen. The proteins are synthesised in the ribosomes of the cell.
The energy from $T( is used in active transport to transfer molecules against a concentration gradient e.g $bsorption of molecules in the small intestine
ormation of organelles, such as lysosomes, which are essential in breaking down unwanted substances or microorganisms espiration is the breaking down of glucose to release energy to form $T(. There are four stages in respiration which includes glycolysis, the link reaction, 0rebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. n glycolysis, $T( is used to make the glucose into a more reactive molecule, called phosphorylated glucose. This is then split into triose phosphate and is used to reduce &$' and form 1$T( molecules, to become pyruvate.n the link reaction, decarboxylation occurs as 2co3 is removed meaning the pyruvate becomeacetate, &$' is reduced and finally, coen)yme $ combines with the acetate to form acetyl co*$.n the 0rebs cycle, oxaloacetate 41+5 combines with the acetate as the co*$ is removed to form citrate 4#+5 a series of oxidation*reduction reactions occur to produce reduced &$', reduced $' and $T( as the oxaloacetate is regenerated.The final process, oxidative phosphorylation, uses the reduced &$' produced in the 0rebs cycle by splitting it into electrons, hydrogen ions, and &$'. The electrons travel through an electron transport chain, at each stage they lose energy this is used to move the hydrogen ions against a concentration gradient and into the mitochondria membrane. $T( synthase, the same as in the light dependant reaction, is used to propel the high concentration of hydrogen ions down a concentration gradient generating the energy to produce $T( from $'( and (i. The hydrogen ions combine with oxygen molecules 4transferred into the blood via the alveoli in the lungs5 to form water.The respiration process produces 63 $T( molecules and can be summarised by7+#H238# 9 #83
#H38 9 #+83 9 :energy
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